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# Hypersplenism

a premature destruction of blood cells by the spleen
Hypersplenism is an overactive spleen. The spleen is an organ found in the upper left side of your abdomen. The spleen helps filter old and damaged cells from your bloodstream. If your spleen is overactive, it removes the blood cells too early and too quickly. The spleen plays a key role in helping your body fight infections. Problems with the spleen can make you more likely to develop infections.

Symptoms of Hypersplenism

Symptoms include:

Enlarged spleen
Low level of one or more types of blood cells
Feeling full too soon after eating
Stomach pain on the left side
Causes of Hypersplenism

Common causes of hypersplenism include:

Cirrhosis (advanced liver disease)
Various connective tissue and inflammatory diseases

Diagnosis of hypersplenism begins with review of symptoms and patient history, and careful feeling (palpation) of the spleen. Sometimes, a physician can feel an enlarged spleen. X-ray studies, such as ultrasound and computed tomography scan (CT scan), may help diagnose an enlarged spleen and possible underlying causes, such as tumors. Blood tests indicate decreases in white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets. Another test measures red blood cells in the liver and spleen after injection of a radioactive substance, and indicates areas where the spleen is holding on to large numbers of red cells or is destroying them. semi informal large size gown below 100

Enlarged spleens are diagnosed using a combination of patient history, physical examination, including palpation of the spleen, if possible, and diagnostic tests. A history of fever and systemic symptoms may be present because of infection, malaria, or an inflammatory disorder. A complete blood count is taken to check counts of young red blood cells. Liver function tests, CT scans, and ultrasound exams can also help to detect an enlarged spleen.

Possibly splenic ablation (splenectomy or radiation therapy)In secondary hypersplenism, the underlying disease must be treated to prevent further sequestration or destruction of blood cells, and possible spleen enlargement. Those therapies will be tried prior to removal of the spleen (splenectomy ), which is avoided if possible. In severe cases, the spleen must be removed. Splenectomy will correct the effects of low blood cell concentrations in the blood.
Vaccination for splenectomized patientsBecause the intact spleen protects against serious infections with encapsulated bacteria, splenectomy should be avoided whenever possible, and patients undergoing splenectomy require vaccinationagainst infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae.

Cirrhosis: Hardening of an organ, usually the liver. Cirrhosis of the liver is a progressive disease which leads to destruction of liver cells, interference with blood flow in the liver, and interference with the function of the liver.
Palpitations: Throbbing or pulsation. Heart palpitations usually infer an irregular or rapid rhythm.
Polycythemia vera: A chronic disorder characterized by increased red blood cell mass and other malfunctions of the blood system. It most commonly occurs in males of Jewish ancestry between the ages of 40 and 60.
Systemic: Relating to a system, or especially the entire system.
Systemic lupus erythematosus: A connective tissue disease that results in fever, weakness, fatigue, joint pain and arthritis.
Ulcerations: Breaks in skin or mucous membranes that are often accompanied by loss of tissue on the surface.